The basic, core technology building blocks of ACOs are threefold: 1) some form of digitized data (e.g., electronic health records); 2) some sort of ability to exchange health information; and 3) data analytics. While it is possible for an ACO to function without these for a short period of time, all three of these are absolutely essential for long-term sustainability and success. The next layer of technology for ACOs leverages the basic building blocks and consists of practical applications for population health management, care coordination and cost reduction.