I have not found the exact same functionality in Qlik Sense but there are some alternatives that might solve your use case just as well (or better?):
If you add dimensions or measures as Alternatives your users can Right Click on the chart, then choose 'Open exploration menu' where they easily can switch between which dimension or measure are active. Still you are bound by the number of dimensions or measures the chart was created with (will not be dynamic as for allowing 1..n measures to be active based on selections).
For truly dynamic charts the users may use the predefined dimensions and measure and just create the analysis they desire with drag and drop. It is not as easy or "controlled" as having a list of available measures to turn on/off for a dimension but they should be able to do the same analysis.
Finally, under 'Add ons' in your chart menu you do have calculation condition but for the entire chart.. not what you are after but good to know.