I can't think of a way to do this, you can use the self-referencing (recursive) ability of a measure to refer to itself but you still need to be able to dynamically calculate the range of empty values. In any case I'm curious as to what your use-case is. As you say it is easily solved in the load script, I can't think why you would need to dynamically create a value where one doesn't exist that isn't an aggregate of some kind? It would be good to know more of the context of what you are trying to achieve as there may be another way around the problem.
The use case is to be able to see the latest entry in the “Value” field based on the Date field. So on 1/2/2020, the latest entry was 1 so show 1 in the Formula Output column. Ultimately, a table needs to be created that would have multiple columns that would show the latest entry for several different fields.