There are two different things mentioned in your question.
1. Charts data access from server database without load on Qlik Sense Server means pick the real time data from database
- To access the data for charts directly from your database without saving the data in qlik side, you have to use "Direct Query" concept. But It is not completely real time update. To update the data real time, you have to schedule a task in QMC to reolad in every 2 mins or 5 mins or something like that..To know more about Direct Query and example, please refer the following help link.
2. how to publish app without Qlik Management Console ?
Apart from Andy's answer, If you dont want to share the app with anyone, you can use Qlik Sense Desktop. If you use Qlik sense Desktop, you may not be able to use some of the automation functionalities directly like reload the app in particular intervals. for that reasons only, we need Qlik Sense Server.
Or If you want to publish the App without using QMC. Its available in both enterprise and personal version.