You will have to use the concept of Dollar Expansion in dimension tab along with some macros coding.
For this you will have to create data islands as follows:
Code this as an an expression in list box: Range.$(Value_form_Type). this way the list box will be dynamic and will show values for Range.Year, Range.Month, Range.Week in a single list box as per the value selected on Type
So when Someone selects Year the Range.$(Value_form_Type) list box is showing the value for Year.
Now for each of the values write a Macro so for Range.Year when selected value is Current the macro will select the Current Year from the master calender. and so on you may write Macros for the others too
You have to create the data island in script, but to see them on the UI you have to create the list boxes. Again when someone select the values in these list boxes you have to write macros for that, which will make your automatic selections on Master calendar.
Let me know if you need more clarification on this.