the difference between the above licenses that you've asked is somewhat easy.
personal edition: when your are using this edition...though it's a full feldge development edition but you cannot share your application( built on your laptop to someone else machine. to view or use you application the other guy has enter a license key.
so in short a personal edition is for your own development purpose and not meant for sharing with other people.
now what is named cals? OK the named cals are the licenses which we give to clients for using the qlikview applications. minimum of 10 named cals are allotted. after when you have allotted the named cals to different desirous members of your company then and only then they can access the qlikview application.
now publisher comes into picture normally when you ask more from your qlikview application. by this I mean the reporting services and all, pdf generation etc.
Here is some explanation from the Server Reference manual:
QlikView Server QlikView Server provides a platform for hosting, and sharing QlikView information over the Internet/Intranet. QlikView Server is tightly integrated with QlikView to deliver a seamless suite of data analysis technology to end users. The server component of QlikView Server is the centerpiece of this technology, supplying a robust, centrally managed, QlikView document community, connecting multiple users, client types, documents, and objects within a secure and safe environment.
QlikView Publisher QlikView Publisher is a member of the QlikView product family that manages content and access. By presenting your end-users with up-to-date information and letting you manage your QlikView documents in a powerful way, QlikView Publisher is a valuable addition to the QlikView suite. QlikView Publisher distributes data stored in QlikView documents to users within and outside the organization. By reducing data, each user can be presented with the information that concerns him/her. The QlikView Publisher service and user interface are now fully integrated into QlikView Server and the QlikView Management Console (QMC).
There are multiple clients that can be used to connect to the Qlikview server. There is the windows client, Sun Java client, ActiveX IE plug-in client or the AJAX Zero-footprint client. Nothing apart from the standard web browser is needed for the client.
Both the server and publisher are part of the same install package and are deployed on the server.
For more details, please go to http://global.qlik.com/download/ and download the Qlikview Server Reference manual for version 9.0.