The Governance Dashboard must be installed on any server or computer where it will be reloaded.
You can install it on your laptop, for example, and scan your QlikView environment (within your network). Just note that there might be longer reload time due to transferring / reading files across the network.
Yes you can do this without the exe setup you have to place the Governance Dashboard.qvw in your computer system or the server where the development is going on. Because this app captures the information of the Qlik environment and provide the details to you within the Governance Dashboard.qvw.