from a Qlik doc
The QVS is a server-side product that contains the in-memory analytics engine and
which handles all client/server communication between a QlikView client (i.e. desktop,
IE plugin, AJAX or Mobile) and the server. It includes a Management Console for providing
Administrator access to control all aspects of the server deployments (including security,
clustering, distribution etc.) and also includes a web server to provide front-end access
to the documents within. The web server’s user portal is known as “Access Point”.
(It’s important to note that while the QVS contains its own web server, one can also
utilize Microsoft’s IIS for this purpose too). The QVS handles client authorization against
existing directory providers (e.g. AD, eDirectory) and also performs read and write to ACLs
for QVW documents.
The QlikView Publisher is a server-side product that performs 2 main functions: 1) It is
used to load data directly from data sources defined via connection strings in the source
QVW files. 2) It is used as a distribution service to ‘reduce’ data and applications from
source QVW files based on various rules (such as user authorization or data access) and to
distribute these newly-created documents to the appropriate QlikView servers or as static
reports via email.