You can achieve it by creating a security rule, even though the credentials used in the ODBC is shared by multiple users.
On QMC, click"Manage Content" > "Data Connections" and select the data connection you would like to share. On the right side, select "Associated Items" > "Security rules" then click "Create associated rule" button. Then, you can grant "read" privilege to users on this rule as follows:
There would be more sophisticated way like creating a group with custom property and grant access right to the group, so please take it as a minimum sample.