There is one filter that will allow an optimised load - the single parameter Exists() function. As an example - if the source QVD contains a Year field, and you only want one year's data, then you can do this:
LOAD 2015 As Year Autogenerate 1;
LOAD * FROM largeQVD.qvd (qvd)
This will only load Year = 2015 data and should still be an optimised load.