Update: I upgraded to 2.2.4. Then I restarted my VM and ran the Repair tool again. This "fixed" the problem at the expense of all my apps being inaccessible (I can see them in the QMC, but not the hub). Fortunately, I am all too familiar with Qlik Sense's propensity for doing stupid crap like this so I had backed up all of my apps beforehand. The users, streams and security roles remained unaffected.