Apart from the post above by Ruben, try checking the usual suspects:
- .NET 4.5.1 or higher is installed (the error in your log comes from this point) and registered
- Account is local admin with full permission and UAC is disabled for that user
- Make sure folders %ProgramData%\Qlik and %ProgramData%\PackageCache are clean
- Windows 10 is supported for your version of Qlik Sense Desktop (e.g.: x64 or Qlik Sense 2.2+)
- Accounts use latin names, not localized (e.g.: Russian or Chinese)
- In case you already have a postgre version installed, remove it after backing up your databases
Those are folders, if you don't have them, no worries, should be created during the installation process. Assuming all the system requirements are met for the version you want to install, my next step on troubleshooting would be:
- Download the installer again, right click on the properties of the file and Unblock it
- Remove completely any leftovers of the current or previous installations
- Install a previous version to see whether it is version specific or a broader issue
- Uninstall and remove any leftovers of QlikView installations
- Run the file as compatible with Windows 8 or Windows 10 (right click on the installer > Properties > Compatibility)
- Modification of the Windows Registry as in here
- Install on any drive for which your account has full access (most recommended, C:) by selecting "Custom Installation" instead of "Quick Install"
If all that fails, and even it if works, report to your Partner Manager at Qlik and Qlik Support (as a partner you can create cases yourself in the Qlik Support portal).