I had made a fresh install now and I still getting the same issue..
we had the exact same problem.
For us, the cause was that the "Preferred Client" for the user was set to Internet Explorer plugin, but the document was not enabled for Internet Explorer plugin access (only Full Browser).
Solution either of three things:
1) User actively goes to favourites/profile and sets Preferred Client to Full Browser
2) In QEMS - System - QlikView Web Servers - AccessPoint, the default preferred client is changed to Full Browser and Small Device Version
3) The document is enabled for Internet explorer plugin
We didn't want our users to have to do anything and our document does not work correctly with the IE plugin, so we had to choose solution (2).
Yes, the links have changed since version 9. The best way to get the link is to open what you want in the accesspoint and then copy the link. Here is what it should look link for version 10 & 11