without the use of an extension, it is not possible to imitate the calendar in Qlik Sense.
the problem is that you need Week as a dimension bec in a calendar, the dates are ordered by week rows. in QlikView you can hide a column but not in Qlik Sense. try this:
load Date, week(Date) as Week, WeekDay(Date) as Day, month(Date) as Month, year(Date) as Year;
load Date(today()-iterno()) as Date
load 1 AutoGenerate(1);
load Date, rand()*1000 as Amount
filter of a specific Month, then create a table chart: