If I try this in Qlik Sense the variable containing the where clause shows up in red, but it is working. The first thing you have to do, however, is create a connection to the folder containing the qvd file. So that your from statement looks like this:
FROM [lib://QVDfolder/File.qvd] (qvd) $(vLoadQvdCondition);
The vLoadQvdCondition still shows up red, but in my case it works on loading. Could that be the solution?